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Phenomenology as a research method

Phenomenology is different from all other research methods, as its field of study differs from other methods. What's the difference? To understand this difference, first of all, phenomenology should be distinguished from natural science research methods. The first difference is that natural sciences study the world of nature and its physical nature, which follows its own laws, which we generally know about the laws of nature. Physical nature exists in time and space, and the laws of time and space are followed by, for example, prudence. Rather than being objects of a material nature, phenomenology is studying the purely spiritual phenomenon. Study consciousness.

The subject of phenomenology is the structure of consciousness, while all things related to time and space, physical nature, are removed from consciousness. How does phenomenology achieve this goal in order to eliminate all the things that are bound by time and space, from every physical object to do? This is done by changing the researcher's behavior. Phenomenology asks the researcher to suspend any judgment on the physical world. This is called the epoche of the language of phenomenology. Epoche means pocket. "A researcher, while practicing epofa, holds back, or holds pockets or locks of all judgments of physical nature, the researcher has to seize or hold the most important beliefs about nature, the most important belief being the belief in existence. For example, if one is dealing with the concept of the human soul, one should not worry about the existence of the human soul, but rather think about how the respondents perceive the human soul as being aware of it.When a researcher deals with a magical practice of a community , there is no need to worry about the truth, the existence or the reality of such practices. All judgments must be suspended and the only thing to be considered is how people can feel the phenomenon in their minds.

But the conviction that things exist for companies at in our marriage, so this faith should be included in the phenomenological study as well. Existing faith is an immanent part of our consciousness.

Phenomenology is also referred to as a study of the phenomenon. The word phenomenon actually means the term that things seem to be a consciousness. In order to understand the meaning of the phenomenon in the context of phenomenology, we need to understand that things are just the appearance of consciousness and never fully. So when you see a horse, you will only see a phenomenon when you see that horse completely and completely in a detective act and you do not even see the universal horse, says the word horse. You only see or become conscious of one horse's perspective and the conclusion that what you see is a complete horse that is crossing or exceeding your direct consciousness. So if we look at a perspective, the phenomenon of one thing, the whole thing is the whole thing, it violates the boundaries of phenomenology. Because the conclusion that a horse is standing in front of you is not immanent in one perception of one thing. If I see an image profile and from this profile I will infer the whole picture, it means I passed what I gave to my mind and bought my judgment. I learned this perception from my previous experiences. If phenomenology does not allow this conclusion.

The phenomenon word needs to be further developed. To do this, we must understand the basic property of consciousness. Mind is always intentional. This has a special meaning; saying that consciousness is always deliberate, means that consciousness is always something, never anything. So mind is always something, always toward something, always has an object. So while you are aware of something that is aware of this, this awareness can be realized through different ways of consciousness. You know that a tree perceives wood, commemoration of the tree, the idea of ​​the tree, the action on the tree, the image of the tree, studying the tree through conversation about the tree. These are the various ways in which consciousness becomes an object, a tree. However, in all modes of consciousness, the object remains the same, the same tree is the object of your consciousness in all such modes. This common tree is called noema in phenomenology, and the different ways of knowing trees are called noesis. Thus the subject of consciousness, which remains the same in the different phenomena, is called noema, and the modes of access to noema are called noesis.

We can consider the contents of noema and noesis. So if you're interested in knowing how people are familiar with their cell phones, some examples of this experience. These experiences can not be called purely phenomenological, because the purely phenomenological experience is purely mental. This purely phenomenological, however, is always embedded in specific space-time events, so seek the purely phenomenological launch of these experiences. After examining some examples, we may change our experience to get acquainted with all possible experiences of the type being tested. This step is called imaginary variation. If I look at the computer from four sides, I can think of the infinite possible perspectives that I am likely to see from a computer. But I can not do this endless number of experiences. So I have to rely on my imagination and do my imaginary experiences. In these imaginative experiences, I try to change some details and see what is the same in all versions. I have to look for invariant properties, the things that are essential to detect my computer. This is called definition of essences or eidetic reduction.

Epidemic reduction means that experiences are reduced to ideas or essentials. So, in the beginning, I look at a house from five perspectives, then repeat my imagination from other possible perspectives to look at the house. And in all these experiences, I fantasily try to find out which remains unchanged or that my absence from my consciousness does not leave the house in question. These basic functions will make the object, the noema in the fullest sense. This noema differs from the actual object, as it describes all the possibilities of the object. This understanding of the object is also called a horizontal understanding.

Under horizontal understanding I mean a complete understanding of an object and all its potential; opportunities that are not given in any way. For example, the fact that a particular physical object follows the inertia law does not get the only perception of the object. Rather, such a conclusion can only be achieved by imaginative variations that the physical object as a self-moving object is imaginatively, and that consideration of this property is or is, in fact, impossible or impossible.

In the practical applications of phenomenology (Husserl's), one must first define a phenomenon to be examined. Then try to exemplify the examples of the phenomenon. These examples need to be thoroughly investigated, and these examples need to be invented in a fantasy version to find the invariant element. In the imaginary variation you have to take into account virtually every possible way. It results in eidetic reduction and then essences.

In social research, one finds a phenomenon for study, saying that the 10th grade children experience a math topic. Then try a number of exemplary examples. This is usually done by targeted sampling. One of the four or five respondents or four or five carefully selected groups is selected for group discussions. After that, conduct deep interviews or focus group discussions and try the first-hand experience of respondents using unstructured questions. Interviews are usually very long and they last for a couple of hours.

Interviews are recorded and rewritten and then the phenomenological analysis. In this analysis, you will find certain topics or currents that you need to focus on. Data in individual interviews seems to be grouped around these topics. This is called a thematic analysis. Once the topics have been defined, all the interviews must be compiled or rearranged in the topics found so that no data is left out.

Then the organized data must be subjected to a fantasy variation. Each time a noema-noetic structure is analyzed in order to find out that invariant elements and thus essences are found. This reduces the actual potential and the ideal and creates the phenomenon by exploring the full horizon of opportunities.

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